Cancer is a lethal disease widely spreading all over the world. It is the main cause of deaths among the young generation in many countries including the USA and other wells develop countries.
Cancer can be defined as the uncontrollable division of abnormal cells that may be localized to the organ where it originates or spread to other organs. When a cell loses control over the division of cell then cells start to proliferate without any control. As a result, the cluster of cells forms and leads to a tumor. It can form in organs, tissues or cells. There are two types of tumor. One is malignant that do not spread to other organs and remain confined to the organ where it forms. It is the primary stage of cancer. Treatments are available at this stage like surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There are 90% chances for survival and recovery of the patient. Another type is a metastatic tumor that can spread to other tissues and affect them. It is the final and most dangerous stage of cancer. It may lead to death.
Causes of cancer
There are many causes leading to tumor formation. Some important causes are as follows:
- Genetic causes (inherited or adopted after birth)
- Environmental pollution
- Aging factors
- Genomic instability
- Cigarette smoke
- Cancer bacteria
Genes are the sequences of nucleotides in our DNA that code for mRNA and lead to protein formation through translation. This is the central dogma of cell in molecular biology. Through translation, different types of proteins are formed that play role in all processes taking place in our body. Some proteins are enzymes and we all are well aware of the importance of enzymes. Enzymes are biological catalysts. When there is a mutation in a gene or genetic code, it may lead to the formation of the wrong protein. So in this way when cell division controlling enzyme and proteins are affected then, the cell loses control and start to multiply.
How the immune system of the body react to abnormal cells?
The immune system has a special type of cells called natural killer cells. It helps in the differentiation of normal cell from the abnormal cell. Once a cell identifies then immune system, take protective measures and try to remove these cells. Some affected cells release interferons. Interferons are signaling proteins, release from an infected cell and has an effect on the activity of another cell. Other cells respond to interferon by producing anti proteins that protect neighboring cells from attack.
Environment refers to the surrounding that surrounds living things from all sides. Our environment pollutes due to fossil fuel burning in homes, industries, and vehicles. Ozone is the biggest pollutant that leads to a tumor.
Aging considered an important factor for cancer. Molecular and cellular changes occur during development. With the passage of time, they accumulate and manifest themselves in the form of cancer.
Radiation therapy is popular among pregnant women to know about the health of the fetus. Women are unaware of its lethal side effect on the child. Radiation is of two types. They may be nonionizing and form pyrimidine dimer. Two adjacent thymine interact with one another and form a double bond. Other is ionizing radiation like ultraviolet rays. They may cause destruction in the double-stranded structure of DNA.
These are some important and most common causes.