Cancer is a disease that is spreading worldwide and causing deaths. It is the second major cause of deaths in the world including the developed countries like USA and UK. The mortality rate is increasing because we are increasing its risk factors in our environment.
There are many types of treatments. It depends upon the type of cancer, the age of the patient, weight, health status and causative agent of cancer. Some patients require an only single type of treatment and it is good for them. However, there is a requirement of a combination of treatments for. It seems difficult to decide about the type of treatment and patients get confused. You should discuss with your doctor for your help. Early diagnoses of cancer can save a life at an early stage with simple treatment. The rate of spreading of the malignant tumor may also decide the type of cancer.
Some important and famous treatments are:
- Hormonal therapy
Surgery is an operation in which a surgeon removes the tumor from the body. It is applicable at an early stage of cancer when the tumor is not spreading to other organs and confined to one region. Surgery may remove only the effected part or the whole organ. For example in breast cancer treatment, there is the removal or whole breast or half breast with the affected area.
Radiations are highly energetic beams that release from radioactive material. They have the ability to destroy the defective cells. High dose of rays can kill the cancerous cells. Ionizing radiations are used to shrink cancerous cells. Rays only affect the damaged area. They target the genetic material of these cells and destroy it making these cells difficult to divide or survive. It can also affect the normal cells of the body. However, normal cells can recover soon and start their normal function. The purpose of radiation therapy is to destroy as many cancerous cells as possible.it is the good treatment for adults, but can cause long-term side effects in children. It causes blindness and hearing loss in children. Radiotherapy can be used for many types of cancer like brain cancer, breast, larynx, lung, liver, stomach, pancreas, skin, prostate, and uterus.
This type of treatment uses chemical drugs for the recovery of a patient from cancer. It uses cytotoxic drugs to destroy damaged cells. It targets the DNA of cancer cells and destroys their chromosomes. These drugs target all cancer cells and effect some normal cells. However, it is fruitful because cancer cells cannot repair their DNA damage while normal cells recover soon. Some patients use a single drug while some use a combination of effective treatment.
It includes the use of such strategies that induce the patient’s own immune system to fight against the tumor. It uses cytokines and interferon to produce immunity in melanoma patients. Cell-based immunotherapy is a type in which immune cells like natural killer cells and T lymphocytes destroy the cancer cells.
Hormones are chemical secretions of glands. The inhibition of some hormone can prevent the cells from further damage due to cancer. Some hormones have an effect on the activity of cancer cells like estrogen and testosterone. If we block these hormones, the activity of cancer cells will decrease.