Bone tumor or bone cancer is an uncontrollable division of abnormal cells in the bone. Cells become abnormal due to mutations in their DNA. When a mutation occurs, the cell may lose control over its division and form a cluster of cells. This cluster of cells can cause the formation of a tumor. The tumor may remain confined to the area where it has originated and named as a benign tumor. It is the primary or early stage of cancer. It is less dangerous and curable with high chances of complete recovery. If it starts spreading to other organs of the body, it is named as a metastatic tumor. It is the most dangerous stage of cancer.
Causes of bone cancer
It has many causes. We will discuss some details about its important causes in this article.
1- Genetic mutations
It is the major cause of every type of cancer. DNA is controlling all activities of the cells. When a mutation occurs in it, cells lose control over their rate of division and start to multiply. They form a lump of cells and cause tumor formation. DNA mutations affect the activity of cells because it has a complete set of information in its sequence of nucleotides. It forms RNA through transcription and RNA contain a message for synthesizing of a protein through translation. Proteins are vital biomolecules, which perform important functions in the body. They act as cell division controlling proteins, enzymes, receptors, genetic proteins, and transport proteins. If there is any defect in DNA, the wrong RNA will form and ultimately it will form a wrong protein. Due to defected protein, a cell will not correctly perform its activity and it becomes abnormal. It starts to multiply and forms a cluster of cells, which is known as a tumor. In the case of bone cancer, the mutation will not pass out from parents to their child because the mutation is present only in affected cells.
A genetic condition known as Li-Fraumeni syndrome may increase the risk of bone tumor. In this disease, the tumor-suppressing gene has affected.
There are two types of radiations known as ionizing and nonionizing rays. Ionizing radiations cause mutations in the DNA. Exposure to rays for the therapeutic purpose is dangerous because it is a risk factor of cancer. We should aware people about harmful effects of radiations to decrease the ratio of cancerous patients.
3- Bone conditions
Some bone conditions like benign tumors can increase the risk of cancer in bones. However, it will affect at a small extent. A bone disease known as Paget’s disease of bones may increase the chances of cancer in old people in the age of 50 to 60 years old. Ollier’s disease is a rare bone condition. It may also increase the risk of bone cancer.
4- Other conditions
There are some other conditions, which can cause cancer in the bones. It has observed that some children have a type of eye cancer known as retinoblastoma. They are more susceptible to cancer because the same gene is responsible for both diseases. Some babies have an inborn disease known as an umbilical hernia. These babies have a high risk of cancer. However, the chances are less as compare to other conditions.
These are some important causes of cancer. A scientist does not know its exact cause, but they are trying to explore the basic reasons behind it. We should have plenty of knowledge about these causes so that we may avoid them and make our lives free from cancer.