Cancer is a disease in which cell lose control over cell division. Infected cell proliferates without any control and forms tumors. Cell division control proteins are present in the cell that control the rate of cell division. Normal cell multiplies during growth and according to its need during development. It goes necrosis (accidental cell death) or apoptosis (programmed cell death). These two processes remove damaged cells from the body and help to maintain a healthy lifestyle. However, due to environmental pollution, radiation therapy, malnutrition, poor hygienic conditions, poverty and lack of awareness, normal growth of cell effects. Genetic mutation is the major cause of cancer. According to a survey, cancer is spreading in human all over the world. The number of deaths due to cancer is increasing annually. It may affect the child, youth or old persons. It can occur in any age at any place and in any organ, tissue and body part.
Cancer is not a specialized disease of one specific organ or tissue. It can affect every body part, organ, and tissue including liver, kidney, lungs, hurt, blood, intestine, bladder, brain, spinal cord, breast, larynx, esophagus, ovary, testis and thyroid glands etc. Some important types of cancer and their brief detail is as follows:
Ultraviolet radiations are present in sunlight. Ozone layer filters these dangerous rays. However, with the increasing use of fossil fuels, the ozone layer has become thin. When ultraviolet rays pass through the skin, it forms pyrimidine dimer. The specific pyrimidine is they mine. Adjacent thymine form double bond with one another rather than opposing adenine. It leads to a rare genetic disease name as xerodermatic pigmentosum. When these mutations accumulate and damage to DNA is not repair, it leads to skin cancer. Nucleotide repair protein repairs the damage in DNA. It can occur due to lack of this protein. The route cause behind this disease is a mutation in DNA.
There are three types of blood cancer.
Symptoms of blood cancer
- Fatigue or tiredness after light and mild activity
- Undefined weight lose
- Several unexpected infections
- Overnight sweat
- Skin itching
- Swelling around neck, groin, head, and stomach.
- Pain in bones or joints
Causes of blood cancer
Blood cancer causes due to the rapid production of white blood cell. It occurs due to mutations in genes. The high number of white blood cell is unable to fight against infections. It may also affect the ability of bone marrow to produce red blood cell.
Treatment for blood cancer
Stem cell transplant is the best and easy cure for patients with blood cancer.
Lung carcinoma causes due to uncontrollable cell division of lungs. It usually occurs at the age of 70 years.
Its major symptoms are coughing, shortness of breath, weight loss and chest pain.
Its causes include smoking, air pollution, asbestos, and genetic factors.
Treatments include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.
It is a common type of cancer in women.
Its symptoms include swelling or a lump in the breast, fluid discharge from nipples, change in shape or texture of breast, redness of the skin, hotness of breast and inverted nipples.
Its causes include obesity, alcohol, and lack of physical activity, radiation, older age and family history.
Treatments include hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.
The pancreas is a gland that secretes hormones like insulin and glucagon.
Its symptoms are back pain or abdominal pain, yellow skin, dark urine, weight loss and loss of appetite.
Smoking, diabetes, obesity and genetic disorders are the major factors for pancreatic cancer.
Treatments include palliative care, not smoking, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.