Lungs Cancer

non-small cell lung cancer current treatment and future advances



It is a type of lung cancer. Many cases diagnosis every year that suffered from this type of cancer. It shows no clear symptoms in the start of the lung cancer. Many symptoms are alike to the respiratory disease symptoms.

Non-small cell lung cancer can diagnose by different techniques. The lung cancer diagnoses by these techniques can identify and staging of the lung cancer can do. There are following techniques given below:

  • Chest X-ray
  • Bronchoscopy
  • CT scan
  • PET scan
  • Laboratory scan
  • Mediastinoscopy
  1. Chest X-ray

It uses to determine the position, size, and the number of tumors.

  1. Bronchoscopy



This technique uses to determine the tumor’s location. It also uses to obtain a biopsy.

  1. CT scan

This method also uses for mediastinal lymphadenopathy. It also uses to determine the infection of the chest wall and distant metastasis.

  1. PET scan

It uses for detection of extrathoracic, lymph node and mediastinal staging.

  1. Laboratory scan



It uses for the hematologic manifestation of lung cancer. This technique also uses for detection of changes in hormone production.

  1. Mediastinoscopy

It helps in imaging and visualization of mediastinal lymph nodes.

Staging of Nonsmall cell lung cancer

The staging of this type of lung cancer base upon TMN system:

  • Stage 1A

T1

M0

N0

  • Stage 1B

T2

M0

N0

  • Stage 2A

T1

M0

N1

  • Stage 2B

1.

    T2

    M0

    N1

2.

    T3

    M0

    N0

  • Stage 3A

T1-3

M0

N2

  • Stage 3B

T4

M0

Any N

  • Stage 4

Any T

M1

Any N

Treatment options of the non-small cell lung cancer

  • Tumors of early stage

There are many techniques used to treat this type of stage of lung cancer. Treatment based upon the age and response to treatment and many other factors. There are many side effects of lung cancer. Treatment also depends upon the bear the side effects of the treatments.

In this stage, tumors show the response to the treatment for lung cancer.

These tumors can treat by following techniques

  1. Surgery
  2. Radiation therapy
  • Advanced tumors that present locally
  1. Surgery
  2. Surgery + chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Advanced tumors

There is a lot of pain when this type of tumor present. First, it focused to decrease the pain and symptom of this type of tumor. For this purpose following techniques use



  1. Targeted therapy
  2. Chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapy + targeted therapy

Causes of non-small cell lung cancer

There are many causes of this type of lung cancer.

Smoking is the main cause of this type of lung cancer.

On the other hand, damage in DNA replication is a great cause of lung cancer. This DNA damage produces due to smoking.

There are many deficiencies present to copy the DNA. This leads to lung cancer. More severe conditions cause the epigenetic alteration. Mutations produce due to this type of alterations in cancer. These alterations cause to stop gene expression in cancer. These types of mutations occur mostly in the non-small cell lung cancer.

The decrease in the accurate repair causes the common deficiencies in DNA that leads to lung cancer.

About 100,000 mutations in single genome cause the lung cancer in people.

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