Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable division of abnormal cells in the body. When a cell becomes abnormal, the body’s mechanism loses control over its rate of division. It will start to proliferate and spread to other organs. There are many causes behind cell abnormality. Some most important causes have listed below.
Smoking is the major cause of cancer in men. It is preventable if you get rid of this bad habit. It will not only good for your own life, but it will also save passive smokers from its harmful effects. Cigarette contains 4000 dangerous chemicals. Among these chemicals, 36 are carcinogens. These chemicals enter in the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. It can cause many different types of cancer. Our body has the ability to defend against a narrow range of chemicals. Smoke contains so many harmful chemicals that body fails to protect against them. It causes lung cancer, pharynx, mouth, sinuses, nose, liver, stomach, and bladder cancer. Smoking majorly affects the lungs (cleaning organ). Due to tobacco chemicals, cleaning mechanism damages and body is unable to remove toxins from the blood. Chromium in tobacco smoke helps other dangerous chemicals to stick tightly with DNA. In this way, DNA damages and cell become abnormal.
2-Obesity and weight
Obesity is a preventable cause of cancer in the world including the UK. Like smoking, obesity is a risk factor for many types of cancer. Like DNA, fat sends signals to the cells to control their activity. If there is an abundance of stored fat in the body, then the signals arising from a large quantity of fat will damage the activity of cells. It will lead to cells abnormality.
3-Diet and health
A healthy diet contains fiber, vitamin, fruits and vegetables that can save us from cancer. We should avoid red or processed meat because it contains carcinogens. Red meat contains a red pigment, which is called haem. When haem enters the body, it causes irritation to the cells. It provides nutrition to the microbes that produce harmful chemicals and lead to cancer. Meat can form a lot of dangerous chemicals when it has cooked at high temperature. A healthy diet keeps the weight in the
normal range. Use of fruits and vegetables maintain body weight and reduce the risk of cancer.
4-Sunlight and cancer
Sunlight contain ultraviolet rays. These are nonionizing rays that damage DNA in the cells. When DNA damages, cells lost become abnormal and start to divide without any control.it is the main cause of skin cancer.
5-Lack of physical activity
Lack of physical activity is the most important risk factor of cancer. We should engage ourselves in active activities. It will reduce body weight and save us from cancer. Moreover, it can decrease the production of some hormones like estrogen. It can strengthen our immune system and make us healthy.
Alcohol consumption is injurious to health because alcohol itself that can damage cells. Its consumption along with smoking is highly dangerous. It makes the absorption of carcinogens easy in mouth and throat. Therefore, we should avoid alcohol if we want to live a healthy life.
Infections due to microbes can cause cancer. H pylori is a type of bacteria. It is the risk factor of cancer especially stomach cancer.
Hormones are glandular secretions. Some glands secrete them and they effect the activity of other organs and cells. They act just like signals to control the functioning of cells. Changes in hormonal secretions will lead to the formation of abnormal cells.
9-Inherited genetic history
DNA is a generic material that transfers from one generation to the next generation. If there is a mutation in DNA of parents that had caused cancer in them, it will transfer to their progeny.
Some risk factors of cancer has a relation with age. With the passage of time, mutations accumulate and manifest themselves in the form of cancer. Therefore, the risk of cancer increases in old age.