Bone Cancer

What is bone cancer or bone tumor?

bone tumor
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Bone cancer is a type of cancer in which abnormal cells of bone start to multiply without any control and form a cluster of cells in. this cluster of abnormal cells leads to the formation of a tumor. At first stage, it remains confined to the bone and named as a benign tumor. However, later on, it starts to spread in the body, affect other vital organs and named as a metastatic tumor. It can originate in the bone cells as a primary tumor or it can form in response to a tumor in any body part, which has spread to the bone. In the second case, it is named as a secondary tumor. In this article, I would like to introduce types of bone tumor, causes, symptoms, and its treatment.

 

How abnormal cells form?



Our body contains cells, which have DNA in their nucleus. DNA is a hereditary material. It controls all activities of the cell. It has genetic information that is present in the sequence of nucleotides of a gene. Every gene is specific for a character. We resemble with our parents because we have inherited DNA from them. It controls the activity of cells by forming RNAs and proteins. Proteins are very important in this regard. These are the products of translation. Proteins perform many important functions in a cell. They act as enzymes, transport channels, cell division controlling proteins and receptors. Enzymes are biological catalysts. They catalyze all biochemical reactions in the body. Receptor proteins allow the selective molecules to enter in the cell and control its activity. Cell division controlling proteins control the rate of division of a cell. When there is any damage to the DNA, wrong proteins will form and the cell will lose control over its division that will lead to the formation of abnormal cells. These damaged cells start to proliferate and form a tumor.

Causes of bone cancer

There are many causes of bone cancer. Some important causes are as followed:

1- Genetic mutation

Mutation is any damage to the DNA. We have discussed its mechanism above.

2– Radiations



Radiations are the major cause of cancer of every type of cancer. The ozone layer is present above 25Km in the stratosphere, which filters dangerous ultraviolet rays from sunlight. However, due to human activities, this layer is depleting and rays can reach on the surface of the Earth. These rays cause mutation in the DNA and ultimately cause cancer.

3-Smoking

It is the biggest cause of cancer in both smokers and passive smokers. It contains several harmful chemicals that cause mutations in the DNA.

Other important causes are aging, lack of physical activity, overweight or obesity, and malnutrition.

Symptoms of bone tumor

Its symptoms depend upon the stage of the tumor, its size, and type. Some important symptoms are as follow:

  • An affected area may swell or a lump appears in it.
  • Bones become weak and risk of bone fracture increases.
  • Unexplained decrease in body weight

Types of bone cancer



Primary tumor has following types if it a benign tumor:

  • Fibrous dysplasia of the bone
  • Enchondroma
  • Osteochondroma
  • Osteoma
  • Osteoblastoma

If it is a metastatic tumor

  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Fibrosarcoma
  • Ewing’s sarcoma

Treatment of bone tumor

There are following types of treatment:

  • Radiation therapy
  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy

Stages

It has the following important stages:

Stage 1

The tumor was confined to the area where it has originated and it is not much danger.

Stage 2

The tumor has not spread to other organs. However, it has become highly dangerous.

Stage 3

The tumor has spread in the same bone in which it had originated.

Stage 4

The tumor is spreading to other parts of the body.

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